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EV Cell, Module & Pack's Recent Technical Issues and EV Market Forecast
  • Publishing Date : 2015-10-13
  • Published cycle : Special
  • Page :  261p
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Due to depletion of fossil fuels and environmental regulations such as control of greenhouse
gas emissions, the electric vehicle market is gradually expanding with the help of automobiles
that are environmentally friendly compared to internal combustion automobiles and that
have excellent accelerating performances. Secondary batteries that are used the most for EVs
have changed from lead storage cells, Ni-MH cells, to Li-ion cells. Usage for Li-ion cells
have already expanded to portable power units and also expanding to medium to large
secondary batteries for EVs, and they are regarded as a battery that is the most widely used
and with the most applicability. The market for EV secondary batteries is rapidly growing and
since Korea is one of the leaders in the market, there are high expectations for domestic industry growth.

According to a Korean market research firm SNE Research, the global EV market volume has
exceeded 2 million vehicles including all types like HEV, PHEV, and BEV, and is expected to
exceed 8.5 million by 2020. Among different types of EVs, sales of PHEVs and BEVs especially
are expected to grow 62.4% and 59.8% yearly on average respectively until 2020, and to lead
the sales increase of all EVs. In contrast, sales of HEVs are expected to negatively grow -2%
yearly on average. However, in total the EV market is expected to grow 28% yearly on average until 2020.


Currently the global EV market is led by American and Japanese producers, but recently the market 

is expanding due to aggressive EV developments of European and Chinese producers.
The competition in the market is intensifying among American producers like GM, Ford, Chrysler,
Tesla, Japanese producers like Toyota, Honda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, European producers like BMW,
Damiler, VW, Renault, Volvo, and Chinese producers like BYD and SAIC. In the early phase
of the EV market, producers that specialize in EVs like Tesla led the market, but since 2015
large automobile companies have been active in the market, and it is expected that they will gradually
become major influencers in the market.

The most important issues in EV battery development are energy density, price, safety, performance
in low temperature, and long term reliability. The EV battery development roadmap states that element
technologies for battery performance increase are anode and cathode material, electrolyte material
and energy storage technologies, and the roadmap also provides directions for technological developments
comprehensively. Also, the roadmap has included mileage, battery weight, capacity, and price as indices
for battery powered EVs and has been written so that the reader will be able to judge how battery technology
development affects vehicle performance improvements. Further, it includes research plans for various next generation battery systems, energy density of which is expected to rapidly improve in medium to long term.

Since Li-ion batteries have energy density that is superior to that of existing secondary batteries
and produce large output, they can be used for EVs and electric tools. Also, they can be charged
quickly and maintain lifespan after a few hundred cycles. Because the lifespan can be increased to
more than 10 years, they can be used for EVs and currently applied to HEVs and PHEVs in the market.
Areas that need additional design considerations are cycle characteristics, safety, and insulation,
and also weight reduction of components for energy density improvements. Furthermore, because
large-sized batteries are used in very high currents of 100 to 300A compared to small batteries,
structure and design of terminals suitable for high currents and welding process of foil that is the whole
house and terminals should be considered as important factors. Designs that consider protection against
heat from rapid charge and discharge were not considered for small batteries, but they are very important
factors for medium to large batteries.

SNE Research reviewed the issues regarding the EV batteries, technically analyzed forms of each parts,
prices, structures of EV cell module packs, and conducted market research including battery evaluation
method of EV producers, research and development trends of major countries, and technological
developments and businesses of battery producers. Through these, SNE Research analyzed demands
and prices of EVs and EV batteries henceforth until 2020.

Readers will be able to check current EV battery technologies and prices, and global EV sales
and market prospects from this report.


1. Introduction
1.1 Cause of Past EV Failures
1.2 Advent of the EV era
1.3 Advancement of Battery Technologies

2. Current State of EV Batteries

2.1. EVs and EV Batteries in the Market
 2.2.1. EVs
 2.2.2. EV Batteries
2.2. Issues that come with Batteries According to the Roadmap
 2.2.1. Issue 1) Energy Density
 2.2.2. Issue 2) Price
 2.2.3. Issue 3) Safety
 2.2.4. Issue 4) Low Temperature Performance
 2.2.5. Issue 5) Long-term Reliability

3. EV Battery Solutions
3.1. Energy Density
 3.1.1. Anode
 3.1.2. Cathode
 3.1.3. Other Materials
3.2. Battery Types
 3.2.1. Prismatic Li-ion Battery
 3.2.2. Lithium Polymer Battery
3.3. Battery Prices
 3.3.1. Estimates of EV Battery Raw Material Costs
 3.3.2. Estimates of EV Battery Manufacturing Process Costs
 3.3.3. Estimates of EV Battery Pack Prices
3.4. Battery Safety
3.5. Structure of EV Battery Packs
3.6. Battery Heat Control
 3.6.1. Heating Model of Batteries
 3.6.2. Measures for Form Selection of Batteries for Heat Control
 3.6.3. Battery Packs that Use Air-Cooling Thermal Management System
 3.6.4 Battery Packs that Use Water-Cooling Thermal Management System
3.7. Battery Management System
3.7.1. Cell Balancing or Equalization Function
 3.7.2. Current and Voltage Monitoring
3.8. New Batteries for Future Vehicles
3.8.1. Lithium Air Battery
3.8.2. Lithium Sulfur Battery
3.8.3. All Solid State Battery

4. Evaluation Methods of EV Producers
4.1. New Technology Development Processes of Major Automobile Manufacturers
4.1.1. Output Measurement Method for EV Batteries
4.1.2. Output Prediction Method through HPPC
4.1.3. Output Prediction Method through J-Pulse
4.2. Battery Evaluation Items and Methods of Automobile Manufacturers
4.2.1. Battery Performance Evaluation Methods of Automobile Manufacturers
4.2.2. Battery Durability Evaluation Methods of Automobile Manufacturers

5. Current State of EV Battery Research and Development
5.1. Korea
5.2. Japan
5.3. United States
5.4. Others

6. Trends of Technology Developments and Businesses of EV Battery Producers
6.1. Korea
 6.1.1. LG Chemicals
 6.1.2. Samsung SDI
 6.1.3. SK Innovation
 6.1.4. Kokam
6.2. Japan
 6.2.1. Sanyo
 6.2.2. Toshiba
 6.2.3. GS Yuasa
 6.2.4. Primearth EV Energy Co
 6.2.5. Hitachi Automotive System
 6.2.6. AESC
6.3. United States
 6.3.1. Tesla
 6.3.2. EnerDel
 6.3.3. A123systems
 6.3.4. Litec
 6.3.5. Johnson Controls
 6.3.6. XALT Energy (former Dow Kokam)
 6.3.7. Boston Power
6.4. China
 6.4.1. BYD
 6.4.2. Lishen
 6.4.3. China BAK Battery Inc
 6.4.4. ATL
6.5 Others
 6.5.1. Saft
 6.5.2. Gaia
 6.5.3. Electrovaya
 6.5.4. Magna
 6.5.5. EIG
 6.5.6. Seeo
 6.5.7. Valence Technology
 6.5.8. Altair Nanotechnologies
 6.5.9. GP Batteries International Ltd
 6.5.10. International Battery
 6.5.11. K2 Energy
 6.5.12. Maxell Technologies

7. Demand Forecast of EVs
7.1. Market Forecast of EVs by Technologies (2011~2020)
 7.1.1. Market Forecast by Technologies (HEV/PHEV/EV)
 7.1.2. EV Market Forecast by Technologies
7.2. Forecasts of EV Markets (2011~2020)
 7.2.1. United States
 7.2.2. Japan
 7.2.3. Europe
 7.2.4. China
 7.2.5. Korea

8. Demand Forecasts of EV Batteries
8.1. Forecast of EV Battery Market (2011~2020)
 8.1.1. Forecast of Battery Market by Technologies (HEV/PHEV/EV) 
 8.1.2. Forecast of Battery Market by Types (Cy/Pr/Po)
 8.1.3. Forecast of Battery Market by Producers
8.2. Forecast of EV Battery Prices (2011~2020)
 8.2.1. Prices of Battery Cells
 8.2.2. Prices of Battery Packs 

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