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Battery

<2021> Status on Lithium-Ion Battery Si-Anode Technology and the Development Trends of Major Companies
  • Publishing Date : 2021-08-25
  • Published cycle : Special
  • Page :  363p
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<2021>?Status on Lithium-Ion Battery Si-Anode Technology and the Development Trends of Major Companies

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In recent years, the demand for anode material has been rapidly increasing as the battery capacity required for smartphone applications has exceeded 3,000 mAh, and tablets and Ultra PCs adopt a high-capacity lithium polymer battery of 4,000 mAh or higher. Moreover, increasing demand for mid- and large-sized battery for electric vehicles (xEVs) and ESS applications is shifting the focus of anode materials from carbon- and graphite-based to silicone -based material (metal complex). In this regard, new entrants to develop and mass-production Si-anode materials continue to appear.

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Si-based high-capacity materials are currently being developed only by a few companies. However, in order to overcome the driving range issue of electric vehicles, it is essential to develop high-capacity batteries. Hence, identification of the current development status and limitations in advance will ensure competitiveness in the field. Si-anode materials are expected to grow at an annual average of 55% by 2030. The proportion of Si-anode materials in the overall anode market is expected to increase from 1% in 2019 to 7% in 2030.


The most representative high-capacity anode materials for lithium secondary batteries are Si-C composite, Si-alloy, and SiOx. Among them, SiOx and Si-alloy technologies are most matured for commercialization and applied for the development of high-capacity batteries by a few battery makers. However, there are still issues to be resolved, including short lifetime, and swelling. The number of new technologies reported in industry and academia and focused research of anode material makers could be promising indicators for successful commercialization of the technology in the near future.?


This report describes technology development trends and performance improvement of Si anode for xEV, ESS, and IT applications. Particularly, the most recent development status of Si-based high-capacity anode materials [Si-alloy, SiOx, Si-C composite] is surveyed. In addition, the ongoing efforts to apply the new anode materials to batteries, relevant technical issues, and possible solutions are elaborated to facility the development of high-capacity batteries.


The strong points of this report include,

① Overall technology development status of anode material for lithium secondary battery

② Core technology elements and current issues of high-capacity Si-based anode materials

③ Recent technology development trend for Si-based anode materials

④ Prospect for potential applications and commercialization of Si-based anode materials


- Contents -


1. Overview of Lithium Secondary Battery 7

1.1. History of Lithium Secondary Battery 7

1.2. Type and Characteristic of Lithium Secondary Battery 12

1.3. Principle of Lithium Secondary Battery 18

1.3.1 Charge and Discharge Reactions 18

1.3.2 Voltage 21

1.3.3 Transfer of Charges and Ions 34

1.3.4 Theoretical Capacity 36

1.4. Component of Lithium Secondary Battery 39

1.4.1 Cathode Active Material 44

1.4.2 Anode Active Material 48

1.4.3 Separator 52

1.4.4 Electrolyte 54

1.5. Application Field of Lithium Secondary Battery 58


2. Type and Characteristic of Anode Materials for Lithium Secondary Battery 64

2.1. Required Characteristics and Types of Anode Materials for Lithium Secondary Batteries 64

2.2. Characteristics of Carbon-Based Anode Materials 67

2.2.1 Graphite-Based Anode Material 67

2.2.2 Amorphous Carbon-Based Anode Material 82

2.2.3 Interface Reaction of Carbon-Based Anode Material/Electrolyte 93

2.3. Characteristics of Metal-Based Anode Materials 100

2.3.1 Lithium Metal Anode Material 102

2.3.2 Alloy-Based Anode Material 105

2.4. Characteristics of Composite-Based Anode Materials 126

2.4.1 Oxide-Based Anode Material 126

2.4.2 Nitride-Based Anode Material 136


3.Technology Development Status of Si-Based Anode Material for High-Capacity Lithium Secondary Battery 140

3.1. Development History and Direction of High-Capacity Lithium Secondary Battery 140

3.2. Basic Characteristics of High-Capacity Si-Based Anode Materials 149

3.2.1 Lithium Intercalation/Deintercalated Reactions of Si-Based Anode Material 153

3.2.2 Problems and Deterioration Mechanism of Si-Based Anode Materials 156

3.2.3 Volume Expansion Control of Si-Based Anode Materials 158

3.3. Technology Development Trend for High-Capacity Si-Based Anode Materials 166

3.3.1 SiOx Anode Material 168

3.3.2 Si-C Composite Anode Material 174

3.3.3 Si-M Alloy Anode Material 180

3.3.4 Si-Based Anode Material with Various Nanostructures 186

Si nanostructure 188

Porous Si structure 196

Nano-Si/C structure 201

Nano-Si/metal or polymer structure 210

3.3.5 Binder for Si-Based Anode Material 214

3.3.6 Current Collector for Si-Based Anode Material 218

3.3.7 Comprehensive Research Trends and Future Research Directions of Si-Based Anode 220


4. Status on Lithium Secondary Battery Anode Material Markets and Companies 222

4.1. Status on Lithium Secondary Battery Anode Material Market 222

4.2. Status on Lithium Secondary Battery Anode Material Companies 233

Anode Material Producers centered on Graphite/Carbon-Based

4.2.1 Hitachi Chemical 235

4.2.2 Mitsubishi Chemical 241

4.2.3 JFE Chemical 244

4.2.4 BTR New Energy Materials 246

4.2.5 Shanghai Shanshan Tech 250

4.2.6 Jiangxi Zichen Technology 253

4.2.7 Shinzoom(Changsha Xingcheng) 256

4.2.8 Kaijin 259

4.2.9 XFH (XiangFengHua) 261

4.2.10 POSCO Chemical 263

4.2.11 Aekyung Petrochemical 266

?Silicon-Based Anode Material Producers

4.2.12 Daejoo Electronic Materials 273

4.2.13 Shin-Etsu 278

4.2.14 MK Electron 281

4.2.15 Iljin Electric 284

4.2.16 EG 287

4.2.17 Hansol Chemical 291

4.2.18 Innox Advanced Materials (TRS) 296

4.2.19 FIC Advanced Materials 298

4.2.20 LPN 301

4.2.21 Tera Technos 304

4.2.22 Group14 (SK Materials) 307

4.2.23 Sila nano Technology 310

4.2.24 Enovix 313

4.2.25 Enevate 317

4.2.26 EO Cell 322

4.2.27 Amprius Technologies 324

4.2.28 Nanotek Instruments 328

4.2.29 Nexeon 332

4.2.30 Neo battery 337

4.2.31 Korea Metal Silicon 342

4.2.32 Huawei 345

4.2.33 Dongjin Semichem 347

4.2.34 Osaka Titan 352


5. References 356


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