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<2021> Development Trend for Quick Charging Technology of Lithium-ion Battery
  • Publishing Date : 2021-01-22
  • Published cycle : Special
  • Page :  250p
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 <2021> Development Trend for Quick Charging Technology of Lithium-ion Battery 



The Electric Vehicle (EV) Era has begun in earnest. Starting with the Model S, EVs that can store more than 60kWh of energy have been released, which has naturally expanded to the demand for fast charging. This is because the conventional slow charger has to spend a long time of around 8-9 hours for charging. Naturally, the industry started to focus on fast charging of EVs.


Unlike small electronic devices, including smartphones, EVs should secure a life of more than 10 years and at the same time, be charged at a high voltage of at least 220V. Also, safety must be secured. The technological difficulty of quick charging to send higher voltage and current naturally increases more.


In the modes to charge the electric vehicle, there are various modes: the direct charging mode to supply energy directly by connecting the plug to the electric vehicle, the battery exchange mode to replace the whole battery itself, the non-contact charging mode to charge the battery by delivering the electric power through electromagnetic induction, etc. Among them, the direct-charging mode, which is most common, is divided into 2 kinds, depending on the charging speed: the Quick Charging Mode which can charge relatively quickly by using direct current, and the Slow Charging Mode which charges slowly compared to the Quick Charge by using alternating current.


Currently, the technology in the electric vehicle battery industry is being developed to the extent of being capable of charging up to about 80% of the battery capacity within 20 to 30 minutes. It is faster than the slow charge mode which takes about 9 hours (based on 60kWh vehicles) for 100% full-charge, but still needs to be improved, compared to the lubrication time of a general vehicle having an internal-combustion engine.


In the case of the existing known quick charging technology for lithium-ion secondary batteries, it is accompanied by a loss of the energy density of the battery, and thus, there may be a limit to the direct application to industrialization. Therefore, in order to realize a quick-charging Li-ion battery without loss of energy density, understanding the related electrochemical reaction mechanisms and designing and developing new innovative materials based on them are essential.


During the quick charge, lithium-ion desorption must occur at a rapid rate within the cathode oxide crystal structure; for the performance parameters to be possessed as an anode material, a low discharge potential, a high unit weight, and specific capacity per volume are preferentially considered. In addition to graphite anodes which have been widely used in small lithium-ion batteries, next-generation anode materials aiming at high capacity, high safety, and high durability should be reviewed.


This report will review rapid charging technologies, battery materials, and cell technologies and forecast the development trends and commercialization of IT and rapid charging technologies for EVs, by country/company.


The strong points of this report are as follows:


① Summarize the concepts of charging technology and rapid charging technology;

② Consider issues and materials of rapid charging technology, cells, and electrode design technology;

③ Summarize technological trends by country/company for rapid charging technology;

④ Present applied examples of rapid charging technology for each major company; and

⑤ Introduce the technology and patents related to the rapid charging technology


And this report provides information on trends in rapid charging technology to date.



1. Understanding of Charging Technology

1.1. Charger Technology

1.1.1. Outline of Charger

1.1.2. Charger to Power the Device

1.1.3. Charging via USB Standard

1.1.4. Charger to Charge Batteries Directly

1.2. Wireless Charging Technology

1.2.1. Outline of Wireless Charging Technology

1.2.2. Inductive Coupling Mode

1.2.3. Resonance Coupling Mode

1.2.4. Inductive Coupling Mode vs. Resonance Coupling Mode

1.2.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wireless Charging Technology


2. Understanding of Quick Charge Technology

2.1. Quick Charging Technology for Mobile IT Devices

2.1.1. Power Conversion Technology 

2.1.2. Power Transmission Technology

2.1.3. Power I/C Technology

2.1.4. Charge Algorithm Technology

2.1.5. Battery Technology for Quick Charge

2.2. Understanding of Quick Charge Technology for EVs

2.2.1. Comparison of Charging Modes of EVs: " Slow Charge vs. Quick Charge"

2.2.2. Quick Charge Technology Scope and Issues for EVs Wireless Charging Technology Battery Exchange Mode Fast Charging Battery Technology

2.2.3. Fast Charge Network PORSCHE MISSION E concept ABB TERRA HP program CONTINENTAL ALLCHARGE program Toshiba SciB Battery program


3. Materials and Cell Technology for Quick Charging Batteries 

3.1. Cathode Material Technology for Quick Charge Batteries

3.1.1 Cathode Operation Principles and Requirements for Li-ion Batteries

3.1.2 Layered Cathode Materials LCO/NCA NCM Ternary Quick Charge Technology for NCM Ternary Cathode Materials (1) Quick Charge Technology for NCM Ternary Cathode Materials (2)

3.1.3 Spinel-based Cathode Materials Spinel-based Cathode Materials Quick Charge Technology for Spinel-based Cathode Materials

3.1.4 Transition Metal Phosphate-based Cathode Materials Transition Metal Phosphate-based Cathode Materials Quick Charge Technology for Transition Metal Phosphate-based Cathode Materials 

3.2. Anode Material Technology for Quick Charge Li-ion Battery

3.2.1 Graphite

3.2.2 Amorphous Carbon

3.2.3 Metal Anode (Metal Anode)

3.2.4 Lithium Titanate (LTO)

3.2.5 Oxide-based High Potential Anode

3.3. Electrolyte Material Technology for Quick Charge Battery

3.3.1 Outline

3.3.2 Constituent Materials for Electrolyte Organic Solvent Lithium Salt Additive

3.3.3 Electrolyte Property Criteria for Quick Charge Batteries

3.3.4 Electrolyte Design Example for Quick Charge Batteries: High Concentration Salt Design

3.3.5 Electrolyte Design Example for Quick Charge Batteries: Heterologous Salt Design

3.4. Material and Cell Technology for Quick Charge Battery

3.4.1 Electrode Design Principle for Quick Charge Battery (Electrode Tortuosity)

3.4.2 Examples of Electrode Design Research for Quick Charge Battery (1)

3.4.3 Examples of Electrode Design Research for Quick Charge Battery (2)


4. Technology Trends by Country/Company for Quick Charge Technology

4.1. Technology Trends by Country for Quick Charge Technology

4.1.1 Korea

4.1.2 Japan

4.1.3 China

4.1.4 USA

4.1.5 Europe

4.2. Technology Trends by Company for Quick Charge Technology

4.2.1 Enevate

4.2.2 Toshiba

4.2.3 Storedot

4.2.4 Honda

4.2.5 Nissan

4.2.6 Dyson

4.2.7 Toyota

4.2.8 Porsche

4.2.9 Daimler

4.2.10 BMW

4.2.11 Hyundai

4.2.12 Tesla

4.2.13 Rimac

4.2.14 GM

4.2.15 KAIST


4.2.17 PNNL

4.2.18 Stanford University

4.2.19 University of Texas

4.2.20 A123

4.2.21 GP Battery

4.2.22 Battrion

4.2.23 BESS technology

4.2.24 ABB

4.2.25 NTU

4.2.26 Drexel University

4.2.27 Guangzhou Automobile Group

4.2.28 Nanotech Energy

4.2.29 Samsung Electro-Mechanics

4.2.30 Xiaomi

4.3. Patent Review related to Quick Charge Technology for 2015-2020 



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